The tell settlement of Sultana, Malu Rosu represents one of the most studied sites belonging to the Gumelnita culture, due to the very early excavations conducted here. Also, research continued thanks to all the extraordinary artefacts resulted from the digs, many of them being unique for the European Chalcolithic.
The research on this site is strongly connected with the beginnings of the Romanian School of Archaeology funded in early 1920’s by Vasile Parvan then director of the National Antiquary Museum, Bucharest. Parvan’s keen interest for the archaeology on the Romanian Plains resulted in excavations covering large areas such Piscu Crasani, Zimnicea and Oltenita-Gumelnita. In 1923 professor Ioan Andriesescu together with, his student then, Vladimir Dumitrescu, now a well-known prehistoric archaeologists. Following this start, the site at Sultana was forgotten for more than thirty years with only a few sparse short campaigns being organized in the mid 1950’s by Barbu Ionescu and Nita Aghelescu.
Following this, wide area rescue excavations were conducted from 1974 by Constantin Isacescu with the help of museum in Giurgiu and Oltenita. After 1980 the excavations were conducted by the National Museum of RSR in Bucharest. Unfortunately none of these enterprises were published.
After another long break, the site at Sultana came back into attention in 2001 due to a larger research program ‘The beginnings of European civilization. The Neo-Eneolithic in Lower Danube’ ran by the National History Museum, Bucharest and Lower Danube Museum, Calarasi.