1. The flat settlement, Boian culture (5000-4500 cal.BC) at the western limit of lake’s Mostistea terrace.
2. Tell settlement, Gumelnita culture (4500-3900 cal. BC) located at the eastern end of the lake’s terrace. Most of the research has been conducted here.
3. Cemetery I (5000-4300 cal. BC) necropolis appearing to have been used by the inhabitants of both Boian and Gumelnita settlements for more than 8000 years.
4. The off-tell settlement (4500-4300 cal. BC) was identified in 2014 at the limit of cemetery 1. It consists in a series of large house structures (ca. 10x16m) located across the tell at the eastern limit of Cemetery I
5. Cemetery II (4500-4000 cal. BC) which was accidentally identified in the 1970’s is placed at approximately 300 m south of the tell and comprises a few Gumelnita burials.
6. Cemetery III (4600- 4500 cal. BC) identified in 2014 at approximately 280m NNW from the Boian Settlement and ca. 600 m NW from tell. Three burials were excavated which yielded artefacts specific for the Boian-Gumelnita transition phase.
Furthermore, complexes belonging to both settlements and cemeteries were identified and associated to the final phase of the Chalcolithic (Cernavoda I and II), the Bronze Age period (Tei culture), Iron Age (Basarabi culture). Also, features dating back to 4th, 6th-7th centuries AD and Dridu culture 10th century AD, compliment the archaeology in this area.
The oldest settlement in this area is Sultana-Ghetarie belonging to the Boian culture, Vidra Phase which reveals C14 dates between 5000 and 4500 cal BC. Evidence strongly suggests that these groups also created cemetery I and the the tell settlement. The latter settlement was vaguely documented as a result of field walking sessions. Due to the natural erosion and anthropogenic interference, the site is degrading at a worrying speed fact that led to excavations both for rescue and for the purpose of research. There are eight medium to large sized features attributed to Boian, Vidra phase. They present rich archaeological information consisting in ceramic, worked flint, loom weights. Also, significant quantities of charcoal, shell and animal bone contribute to the impressive record in this area.
The most studied area is the tell settlement of Gumelnita culture (ca.4500- 3900 cal. BC). The culture belongs to the wider Kodjadermen-Gumelnita-Karanovo VI spread along the Black Sea coast, Bulgaria and southeast Romania. The settlement is located on top of a terrace next to a natural water source. Stratigraphically, the habitation level is approximately 4.30 m.
As a result of excavation evidence revealed that repair work and delimitation of the area was conducted from the first phase of occupation onwards. Three stages of building consisting of three external ditches and two palisades connected to the ditches, can be observed. The post holes of the palisades are generally very similar in dimensions and filling which show that antler and bone axes would have been used to dig.
The living space seems to have been very well organized. Houses here are rectangular with dimensions ca. 3x4m, oriented on a North South axis. Larger two room house structures between 7x4m and 10x4.5m have also been revealed by excavation.
The material used for building is clay in the form of adobe which dress the main frame with a result loosely resembling the wattle and daub technique. The interior walls, floors and hearths would have been plastered repeatedly as evidence has shown. Also, a high degree of housekeeping is evident. The richness of the artefacts recovered here comprising in amazing ceramic vessels for everyday use, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic ceramics and also flint, bone and antler tools demonstrate the importance of this site in the European prehistory. Furthermore, the adornment objects of bone, shell and pure gold add great significance of evidence in the archaeological record.
The rubbish deposition areas add a great amount of information to the evidence through the remains of organic matter such as fish and mammalian bone, shell, coprolites and wood.
The cemetery I is situated at approximately 150 m west of the tell itself and ca, 320m east from the Sultana-Ghetarie. Results of analyses show dates between 5000-4300 cal.BC.
Until now, cemetery I has yielded 95 burials that can be categorized as primary burials. Here, a single individual in generally articulated crouched position were recovered. The secondary inhumations represent an individual that was moved from its initial burial place. The orientation axis in the case of primary burials was generally with the head towards east. Also, consequent spatial analysis revealed a tendency of parallel distribution of the inhumations. These characteristics are common to the Chalcolithic burials in the Balkan area but also of the Boian culture which suggest the presence of patterns becoming traditions emphasizing continuity in the funerary practices.
The secondary burials are on the other hand, puzzling. Generally, the bones belong to a single individual with one exception where two individuals were identified. The patterns of deposition can be divided in two categories between the ones that show clear intentional bone selection and the apparently randomly picked. Another point to emphasize is the post burial bone removal where skulls and other bones were displaced from the grave, in some cases archaeologists were able to identify stratigraphically the extraction marks. It is taken into consideration their use as part of an ancestor’s cult or ceremonially as part of rituals.
A small number of burials present grave goods such as ceramic vessels and flint blades but also polished stone axes and adornment objects.